Analysis of Intercurrent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Phase I and II Trials of Candidate AIDS Vaccines
Year of Publication
Graham, BS; McElrath, MJ; Connor, RI; Schwartz, DH; Gorse, GJ; Keefer, MC; Mulligan, MJ; Matthews, TJ; Wolinsky, SM; Montefiori, DC; Vermund, SH; Lambert, JS; Corey, L; Belshe, RB; Dolin, R; Wright, PF; Korber, BT; Wolff, MC; Fast, P; [...]
J Infec Dis
Adult; AIDS Vaccines; Amino Acid Sequence; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Female; HIV Antibodies; HIV Envelope Protein gp120; HIV Infections; HIV-1; Immunity- Active; Incidence Male; Middle Aged; Molecular Sequence Data; Neutralization Tests; Peptide Fragments
Among 2099 uninfected subjects in phase I and II trials of candidate AIDS vaccines, 23 were diagnosed with intercurrent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. High-risk sexual exposures accounted for 17 infections, and intravenous drug use accounted for 6. Four subjects received placebo, 13 received a complete immunization schedule (> or = 3 injections), and 6 were partially immunized (< or = 2 injections). There was no significant difference between vaccine recipients and control groups in incidence of HIV-1 infection, virus load, CD4 lymphocyte count, or V3 loop amino acid sequence. In summary, 19 vaccinated subjects acquired HIV-1 infection during phase I and II trials, indicating that immunization with the products described is < 100% effective in preventing or rapidly clearing infection. Laboratory analysis suggested that vaccine-induced immune responses did not significantly affect the genotypic or phenotypic characteristics of transmitted virus or the early clinical course of HIV-1 infection.