Impact of electronic nicotine delivery systems and other respondent characteristics on tobacco use transitions among a U.S. national sample of women of reproductive age.
BACKGROUND: Identifying predictors of tobacco use patterns that differ in harm among reproductive-aged women may inform efforts to protect women and children against adverse health impacts of tobacco use.
METHODS: Changes in tobacco use patterns were examined among women (18-49 years) who completed Wave 1 (W1) and Wave 2 (W2), or W2 and Wave 3 (W3) of the U.S. Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH, 2013-2016) study, and were using cigarettes, filtered cigars and/or cigarillos in the first wave over which data were included for that respondent (Time 1; T1). We examined the proportion of respondents whose tobacco use transitions from T1 to Time 2 (T2) were harm-maintaining (continued using combusted tobacco), harm-reducing (transitioned to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or harm-eliminating (quit tobacco). Multinomial logistic regressions (with harm-maintaining as the baseline category) were conducted to examine associations between ENDS use, demographic, and psychosocial characteristics with each transition.
RESULTS: A majority of women (83 %) exhibited harm-maintaining transitions, followed by harm-eliminating (14.7 %) and harm-reducing (2.3 %) transitions. Use of ENDS at T1 was associated with increased odds of harm reduction and decreased odds of harm elimination. Younger women were more likely to make both harm-reducing and harm-eliminating transitions. Increased educational attainment, identifying as Black or Hispanic, increased psychiatric symptoms, and pregnancy were associated with harm elimination, whereas living at or above poverty was associated with harm reduction.
CONCLUSIONS: Study results contribute new information on the impact of ENDS, sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric symptoms, and pregnancy on tobacco use transitions among reproductive-aged women.