Effect of recent seasonal influenza vaccination on serum antibody responses to candidate pandemic influenza A/H5N1 vaccines: A meta-analysis.
Recent studies have suggested that among those receiving seasonal influenza vaccine (SIV), reduced immunogenicity is observed in recently vaccinated (RV; within the past season or 2) persons when compared with those not recently vaccinated (NRV). We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of recent immunization with SIV on serum H5 hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses after influenza A/H5N1 vaccination using data from a series of randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was seroconversion measured by HAI assays following receipt of 2 doses of H5N1 vaccine. The geometric mean titer (GMT) of serum HAI antibody after vaccination was the secondary outcome. Analyses were performed using propensity score (PS) matching. The PS for each individual in the meta-analysis cohort was calculated using logistic regression and covariates included age, gender, race, antigen dose, adjuvant, statin use and vaccine manufacturer. 2015 subjects enrolled in 7 clinical trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis cohort; among these, 915 (45%) were RV. 901 RV subjects were matched (1:1) with replacement to a subject who was NRV. Subjects who received SIV within the previous season were significantly less likely to seroconvert following H5N1 vaccination (adjusted odds ratio 0.76; 95%CI 0.60-0.96; p = 0.024), and the GMT was 18% higher among NRV subjects (GM ratio of HAI antibody 1.18; 95%CI 1.04-1.33; p = 0.008). Further work is needed to better define the effects of, and mechanisms contributing to, reduced immune responses to H5N1 vaccine among RV subjects.