No CFH or ARMS2 Interaction with Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Low versus High Zinc, or β-Carotene versus Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2: Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report No.

Publication Type
Journal Article
Year of Publication
van Asten, Freekje; Chiu, Chi-Yang; Agrón, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Swaroop, Anand; Klein, Michael L; Fan, Ruzong; Chew, Emily Y; Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Research Group
Date Published
2019 11
Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Beta Carotene; Carotenoids; Complement Factor H; Dietary Supplements; Disease Progression; Double-Blind Method; Drug Combinations; Fatty Acids, Omega-3; Female; Genetic Association Studies; Genome-Wide Association Study; Genotyping Techniques; Humans; Lutein; Macular Degeneration; Male; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Proteins; visual acuity; Zeaxanthins; Zinc Compounds

PURPOSE: To assess whether genotypes at 2 major loci associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), complement factor H (CFH), or age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), modify the response to oral nutrients for the treatment of AMD in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2).

DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a randomized trial.

PARTICIPANTS: White AREDS2 participants.

METHODS: AREDS2 participants (n = 4203) with bilateral large drusen or late AMD in 1 eye were assigned randomly to lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acids, both, or placebo, and most also received the AREDS supplements. A secondary randomization assessed modified AREDS supplements in 4 treatment arms: lower zinc dosage, omission of β-carotene, both, or no modification. To evaluate the progression to late AMD, fundus photographs were obtained at baseline and annual study visits, and history of treatment for late AMD was obtained at study visits and 6-month interim telephone calls. Participants were genotyped for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1061170 in CFH and rs10490924 in ARMS2. Bivariate frailty models using both eyes were conducted, including a gene-supplement interaction term and adjusting for age, gender, level of education, and smoking status. The main treatment effects, as well as the direct comparison between lutein plus zeaxanthin and β-carotene, were assessed for genotype interaction.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The interaction between genotype and the response to AREDS2 supplements regarding progression to late AMD, any geographic atrophy (GA), and neovascular AMD.

RESULTS: Complete data were available for 2775 eyes without baseline late AMD (1684 participants). The participants (mean age ± standard deviation, 72.1±7.7 years; 58.5% female) were followed up for a median of 5 years. The ARMS2 risk allele was associated significantly with progression to late AMD and neovascular AMD (P = 2.40 × 10 and P = 0.002, respectively), but not any GA (P = 0.097). The CFH risk allele was not associated with AMD progression. Genotype did not modify significantly the response to any of the AREDS2 supplements.

CONCLUSIONS: CFH and ARMS2 risk alleles do not modify the response to the AREDS2 nutrient supplements with respect to the progression to late AMD (GA and neovascular AMD).