Component-resolved analysis of IgA, IgE, and IgG4 during egg OIT identifies markers associated with sustained unresponsiveness.
BACKGROUND: In a previously reported CoFAR study, 55 subjects with egg allergy underwent randomized, placebo-controlled egg oral immunotherapy (eOIT). Active treatment induced desensitization in most and sustained unresponsiveness (SU) in a smaller subset. We hypothesized that component-resolved analysis of IgE, IgG4, IgA, IgA1, and IgA2 may identify potential biomarkers of SU in OIT subjects.
METHODS: Longitudinal samples for 51 egg-allergic subjects (37 active and 14 placebo) were available. Egg white (EW)-, ovalbumin (OVA)-, and ovomucoid (OVM)-specific levels of IgA, IgA1, and IgA2 were quantified by ELISA. IgE and IgG4 to these antigens were quantified using ImmunoCAP . Clinical responders achieved SU to egg; all others were considered nonresponders. Between-group comparisons were made among active and placebo, as well as responders and nonresponders.
RESULTS: No placebo subjects achieved responder status. Through month 48, among the 37 active subjects, baseline IgE-OVM was lower in responders (median 3.97 kU/l, n = 19) than in nonresponders (10.9 kU/l, n = 18, P = 0.010). Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower baseline IgE-EW (P = 0.038), IgE-OVM (P = 0.032), and a higher IgG4/IgE-OVM ratio (P = 0.013) were associated with clinical response. Relative increases in IgG4-EW, IgA-EW, and IgA2-EW were observed in responders (P = 0.024, 0.024, and 0.029, respectively). IgG4/IgE, IgA/IgE, and IgA2/IgE ratios for EW and IgA/IgE ratio for OVA were found to be significantly elevated among responders (P = 0.004, 0.009, 0.028, and 0.008, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Increased IgG4-EW, IgA-EW, and IgA2-EW during eOIT are associated with clinical response to eOIT. Lower pretreatment IgE-EW and IgE-OVM are also associated with SU. Future studies are needed to evaluate and validate these potential biomarkers.