Mismatched related and unrelated donors for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adults with hematologic malignancies.
Two parallel phase II trials in adults with hematologic malignancies demonstrated comparable survival after reduced-intensity conditioning and transplantation of either 2 HLA-mismatched umbilical cord blood (UCB) units or bone marrow from HLA-haploidentical relatives. Donor choice is often subject to physician practice and institutional preference. Despite clear preliminary evidence of equipoise between HLA-haploidentical related donor and double unrelated donor UCB transplantation, the actual prospect of being randomized between these 2 very different donor sources is daunting to patients and their treating physicians alike. Under these circumstances, it is challenging to conduct a phase III randomized trial in which patients are assigned to the UCB or haploidentical bone marrow arms. Therefore, we aimed to provide an evidence-based review and recommendations for selecting donors for adults without an HLA-matched sibling or an HLA-matched adult unrelated donor.