Predictors of blood pressure and its control in pediatric patients receiving dialysis.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and characterize the degree of blood pressure (BP) control in children on chronic dialysis and to identify significant predictors of hypertension and BP control in these patients.
STUDY DESIGN: Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine trends in BP and BP control in a cross-sectional sample of patients on chronic dialysis aged 1-21 years enrolled in the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies registry from 1992-2008.
RESULTS: At 6 months after dialysis initiation, 67.9% of patients had uncontrolled or untreated hypertension, and 57.8% were prescribed antihypertensive medications. More recent year of dialysis initiation was associated with a higher use of antihypertensive medication and lower systolic BP and diastolic BP z scores (P < .001) measured over time from 6 months to 3 years post dialysis initiation. Other factors associated with higher BP included black race, glomerular disease, younger age, hemodialysis (systolic BP only), and antihypertensive use. There were significant differences in BP control by dialysis modality and disease etiology, with patients on hemodialysis or those with glomerular diseases having the highest percentage of uncontrolled hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread antihypertensive use, many pediatric patients on dialysis are at risk for untreated or uncontrolled hypertension. Additional efforts are needed to improve management of hypertension in these children.