Malignancy in the HIV-infected patients undergoing liver and kidney transplantation.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The transplant community has seen the gradual acceptance of liver and kidney transplantation in carefully selected HIV-positive patients. The addition of transplant immunosuppressants to an already immunocompromised state, however, may increase the risk of malignancy.
RECENT FINDINGS: Kidney transplantation and liver transplantation have been successful in large series of carefully selected HIV-infected patients, with graft and patient survival approaching those of non-HIV-infected patients. The incidence of acute cellular rejection (kidney transplantation) and of recurrent hepatitis C (liver transplantation) remains challenging. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is a common indication for liver transplantation, seems to occur at a younger age and to have a generally worse outcome in the HIV-positive patients. Liver transplantation outcomes for HCC in these patients, however, do not seem to be compromised. Rates of Kaposi's sarcoma and other de-novo malignancies such as skin cancer are relatively low after transplant. Kaposi's sarcoma may regress with the use of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor sirolimus. In HIV-positive patients followed closely for human papilloma virus (HPV)-related anal neoplasia after transplantation, there may be an increased risk of progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
SUMMARY: The risk of recurrent or de-novo malignancy after solid-organ transplantation in HIV patients is low. HPV-related neoplasia, however, requires further study.