Glomerular filtration rate following pediatric liver transplantation--the SPLIT experience.
Impaired kidney function is a well-recognized complication following liver transplantation (LT). Studies of this complication in children have been limited by small numbers and insensitive outcome measures. Our aim was to define the prevalence of, and identify risk factors for, post-LT kidney dysfunction in a multicenter pediatric cohort using measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 397 patients enrolled in the Studies in Pediatric Liver Transplantation (SPLIT) registry, using mGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) as the primary outcome measure. Median age at LT was 2.2 years. Primary diagnoses were biliary atresia (44.6%), fulminant liver failure (9.8%), metabolic liver disease (16.4%), chronic cholestatic liver disease (13.1%), cryptogenic cirrhosis (4.3%) and other (11.8%). At a mean of 5.2 years post-LT, 17.6% of patients had a mGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . In univariate analysis, factors associated with this outcome were transplant center, age at LT, primary diagnosis, calculated GFR (cGFR) at LT and 12 months post-LT, primary immunosuppression, early post-LT kidney complications, age at mGFR, height and weight Z-scores at 12 months post-LT. In multivariate analysis, independent variables associated with a mGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were primary immunosuppression, age at LT, cGFR at LT and height Z-score at 12 months post-LT.