Renal transplantation in children from 1987-1996: the 1996 Annual Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study.
The 1996 Annual Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS) summarizes data voluntarily collected from 130 centers on 4329 children and adolescent patients who received renal transplants on or after January 1, 1987. This report updates information on transplants; data on dialysis and chronic renal insufficiency have, for the first time, been reported separately (in submission). The NAPRTCS registry shows that the majority of pediatric renal transplants are performed in children above 6 years of age (73%). The most frequent diagnoses include obstructive uropathy (16%), aplastic/hypoplastic/dysplastic kidneys (16%), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (12%). Pre-emptive transplantation was performed in 24% of patients. Triple drug maintenance therapy with prednisone, cyclosporine and azathioprine was used by >70% of all transplant recipients throughout 7 years of follow-up. Fifty-six per cent of transplant recipients were rehospitalized during months 1-5 (51% live donor (LD), 62% cadaver donor (CD)), with rejection and infection as the main causes. In the period 30-35 months post-transplant, 19-22% of patients (163 LD, 185 CD) were rehospitalized. The median time to the first rejection was 46 days for CD transplants and 377 days for LD grafts (p<.001). Six-year graft survival rates were 73% and 56% for LD grafts and CD grafts, respectively (p<.001). The overall growth deficit was constant over a period of 60 months. However, children transplanted under 5 years of age reduce their height deficit by about one-third compared to an increase in height deficit of up to 22% for older children. The NAPRTCS data analysis also demonstrates a delay in first rejection episodes in LD compared to CD transplants, and a steady improvement in CD graft survival over the past 5 years in pediatric transplant recipients.