Prevention of hospitalization due to respiratory syncytial virus: results from the Palivizumab Outcomes Registry.
OBJECTIVE: The Palivizumab Outcomes Registry contains data on infants and young children who received palivizumab for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) that causes serious lower respiratory tract illness.
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational registry enrolling those who received >or=1 dose of palivizumab during any RSV season (2000 to 2004) at participating US sites.
RESULT: Of 19 548 subjects enrolled, 40% were born before 32 weeks', 48% between 32 and 35 weeks' and 12% after 35 weeks' gestation. Risk factors included child-care attendance, prematurity, chronic lung disease (CLD) and congenital heart disease (CHD). The RSV hospitalization rate of palivizumab recipients was 1.3%. Gender, gestational age <32 weeks, CLD, CHD, congenital airway abnormality, severe neuromuscular disease, Medicaid insurance and >2 children in household were associated with significantly higher rates. Home-care prophylaxis with palivizumab was associated with reduced hospitalization rates.
CONCLUSION: Data on the use of palivizumab prophylaxis in primarily high-risk infants confirm low RSV hospitalization rates.