Anemia and growth status in pediatric patients receiving maintenance dialysis after a failed renal transplant course: an NAPRTCS report.
We conducted a retrospective review of the North American Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS) Registry transplant and dialysis arms to assess anemia and growth patterns in children who returned to dialysis after a failed renal transplant from January 1, 1992 to February 3, 2004. Of the 1807 potential study subjects, 1451 had transplant removal data (TxIn vs. TxOut) available for analysis. Four hundred and twenty-one of 1451 patients (29%) had a transplant nephrectomy at the time of entry into the NAPRTCS Registry Dialysis arm. Anemia rates steadily decreased from 72.2% at 30 days after dialysis initiation to 59.5% at 12 months after dialysis initiation. Factors associated with anemia at 30 days after dialysis initiation included hemodialysis, lack of Epo use, and patients who comprised earlier study era cohorts. At one yr after return to dialysis, earlier study cohort era was the only factor associated with anemia status. Patients did not demonstrate significant improvement in height SDS over the course of the study (-2.17 at day 30 to -2.32 at 24 months). The high anemia, poor growth, and low recombinant human growth hormone utilization rates in a group of patients followed longitudinally as they transition from renal transplant to dialysis should cause the pediatric nephrology community to reassess the processes in place to provide optimal care to pediatric end-stage renal disease patients.