Oral supplementation of lutein/zeaxanthin and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in persons aged 60 years or older, with or without AMD.
PURPOSE: Increased dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin and omega-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA) was found to be associated with reduced risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of oral supplementation of omega-3 LCPUFA on changes in serum levels of lutein/zeaxanthin during supplementation in persons 60 years of age and older, with or without AMD.
METHODS: Forty participants with AMD of various degrees of severity received lutein (10 mg) and zeaxanthin (2 mg) daily and were equally randomized to receive omega-3 LCPUFA (350 mg docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and 650 mg eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) or placebo for 6 months. Serum levels of lutein, zeaxanthin, and omega-3 LCPUFAs and macular pigment optical densities were measured at baseline, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months.
RESULTS: By month 6, the median serum levels of lutein/zeaxanthin increased by two- to threefold compared with baseline. Increases in serum levels of lutein/zeaxanthin did not differ by omega-3 LCPUFA treatment (P > 0.5). After 1 month, in the omega-3 LCPUFA-treated group, the median levels of DHA and EPA increased and the placebo group had no changes. At month 6, participants with AMD had a lower increase in serum lutein concentration than did those without AMD (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The addition of omega-3 LCPUFA to oral supplementation of lutein/zeaxanthin did not change the serum levels of lutein and zeaxanthin. A long-term large clinical trial is necessary to investigate the benefits and adverse effects of these factors for the treatment of AMD.