Effect of different vaccination schedules on excretion of oral poliovirus vaccine strains.
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is believed to induce significantly lower mucosal immunity than oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Most of the data supporting this were generated before enhanced IPV (eIPV) was introduced. Excretion of poliovirus by OPV recipients can be used to assess intestinal immunity. We studied polymerase chain reaction amplification of viral complementary DNA from the stool of children vaccinated with either OPV alone or eIPV. Of first-time OPV recipients, 92% excreted virus after 1 week, and 81% excreted virus after 3 weeks. Prior vaccination with OPV reduced the number to 22% and shortened the duration of virus excretion (to 5% after 3 weeks). Two doses of IPV reduced the number of poliovirus-positive 1-week samples (to 76%), the duration of shedding (to 37% at 3 weeks), and the quantity of excreted virus. This suggests that IPV-vaccinated communities are partially protected from the spread of poliovirus. Further enhancement of IPV potency may lead to even higher levels of mucosal immunity.