Decreased risk of renal allograft thrombosis associated with interleukin-2 receptor antagonists: a report of the NAPRTCS.
Graft thrombosis is the most common cause of first year graft failure in pediatric renal transplantation. The North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS) database was analyzed for cases of graft failure due to thrombosis among patients transplanted from 1998 to 2004. The impact of interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor antagonists as induction therapy was determined. There were a total of 51 graft failures due to thrombosis among the 2750 reported renal transplants (1.85%) (95% CI (1.39%, 2.41%)). This represents the most common cause of graft loss during the first year post-transplant accounting for 35% of first year losses and 18% of all graft losses. The incidence of thrombosis among patients who received IL-2 receptor antibodies was 1.07% (12/1126) compared to 2.40% (39/1624) among patients who did not (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23, 0.84, p = 0.014). Use of IL-2 receptor blockade was the only significant prognostic factor in a multivariate model with previously identified risk factors. Analysis of NAPRTCS data found that the use of IL-2 receptor antibodies as induction therapy is associated with a significantly decreased risk of graft failure due to thrombosis. This provocative finding requires further investigation to determine whether thrombotic failure can be decreased by this therapeutic strategy.