Clinical and immuno-virologic characterization of the efficacy of stavudine, lamivudine, and indinavir in human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Clinical, virologic, and immunologic outcomes were analyzed in children with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (n = 25) and clinical symptoms and evidence of immunosuppression to establish the efficacy of 18 months' treatment with stavudine, lamivudine, and indinavir. Children were naive for treatment with protease inhibitors and lamivudine and had minimal exposure to stavudine. At 1, 6, 12, and 18 months, the proportions of patients with HIV-RNA <400 copies/mL were 79%, 100%, 94%, 87% in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) immunologic class 2 and 50%, 67%, 67%, 72% in CDC immunologic class 3. At 12 months, the median CD4(+) count and percent increased significantly in both CDC immunologic class groups, but to a greater extent in the class 3 group. In the 12- to 18-month period, there were no significant changes within the groups. In both groups there was a steady increase in the proportion and number of children with positive skin test responses. Children in class 2 were more likely to have a positive delayed-type hypersensitivity response and a greater number of positive responses. Lymphocyte proliferative response to recall antigens improved significantly in all patients. The rate of increase in positive test results was faster in children in class 2 than in those in class 3. Only minor clinical events occurred during 18 months of therapy. Potent antiretroviral therapy achieves a sustained benefit in HIV-infected children, but immune reconstitution is more likely achieved in children with less advanced disease.