Demographic, Comorbid, and Clinical Variables Associated With Pointwise Visual Field Damage in Glaucoma: Data From the AGIS and CIGTS Clinical Trials.
Purpose: To investigate differences across the visual field (VF) in the rate of glaucomatous progression, the likelihood of defect in four disease severity cross-sections, and comparisons of subgroups in each of between 12 demographic, comorbid, and clinical variables.
Methods: Two long-term glaucoma clinical trials used Humphrey Field Analyzer 24-2 VFs to calculate pointwise deviations from age-matched normal controls. Slopes of glaucomatous progression over time were calculated per participant using linear mixed models. Pointwise differences between subgroups in slopes and cross-sectional categories were tested, adjusting for multiple comparisons using false discovery rate (FDR) and Q values.
Results: Pointwise data were available for 1118 patients who had 15,073 VFs. On average, defects were seen at all VF points. Of the 12 variables, six had average pointwise slopes where Subgroup 1 had significantly faster progression than Subgroup 2 at all or many of the 52 VF points: participants who were older (≥65 vs. younger), 52/52; were male, 13/52; had diabetes, 29/52; had hypertension, 46/52; had a larger cup-to-disc ratio (≥0.7), 36/52; or had larger differences in absolute mean deviation (MD) between eyes (>3 dB), 52/52. Cross-sectional patterns at MD severity of -12 to -6.1 dB showed strong midline effects for gender and other patterns for hypertension, cup-to-disc ratio, absolute difference in MD between eyes, and disc notching.
Conclusions: The approach used provides new longitudinal and cross-sectional insights into variation across the VF associated with demographic, comorbid, and clinical variables.
Translational Relevance: This exploration and characterization of variable effects in the setting of pointwise VF testing may enable clinicians to anticipate patterns of VF loss based on demographic, comorbid, and clinical associations.