Safety and Immunogenicity of a monovalent inactivated influenza A/H5N8 virus vaccine given with and without AS03 or MF59 adjuvants in healthy adults.

Publication Type
Journal Article
Year of Publication
Winokur, Patricia L; Hegmann, Theresa E; Keitel, Wendy A; Bernstein, David I; Frey, Sharon E; Bryant, Chris; DMID 15-0064 Study Group
Clin Infect Dis
Date Published
2023 Jan 05
Avian influenza; H5n8; Immunogenicity; influenza; safety; vaccine

BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A/H5N8 virus infections have been circulating widely in wild and domestic bird populations with transmission to a few human poultry workers. This phase 1, randomized, blinded trial evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a monovalent inactivated influenza A/H5N8 virus vaccine (H5N8 IIV) given with and without AS03 or MF59 adjuvants.

METHODS: 275 healthy adults, ages 19-64 years, were randomized to one of five groups to receive two doses of 15 µg unadjuvanted influenza A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014(H5N8) (clade virus vaccine or two doses of 7.5 or 15 µg of vaccine adjuvanted with AS03 or MF59. Immunogenicity was assessed through 21 days following the second dose of vaccine using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) assays for the homologous influenza A/H5N8 and three heterologous influenza A/H5 viruses. Safety was assessed through 1 year.

RESULTS: The vaccines were well tolerated. Only modest immune responses were seen following receipt of a single dose of vaccine. Seroprotection (HAI titers ≥40) was more common in groups that received AS03 plus 7.5 or 15 µg of vaccine (89% and 93%, respectively) compared to the MF59-adjuvanted groups (56% and 73%), while unadjuvanted vaccine showed a poor response (27%). Higher antigen content resulted in modestly improved immune responses. HAI and MN GMTs and seroconversion rates were low across all study groups for all three heterologous strains of influenza A/H5 virus.

CONCLUSIONS: AS03 or MF59-adjuvanted H5N8 IIV generated strong immunogenic responses following two doses. There was poor cross-reactivity for the three antigenically drifted H5N1 strains tested.