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Surmounting Withdrawal to Initiate Fast Treatment with Naltrexone (SWIFT): A Stepped Wedge Hybrid Type 1 Effectiveness-Implementation Study

2023 Mar 15

Journal Article

Greiner, M.G.; Shulman, M.; Opara, O.; Potter, K.; Voronca, D.C.; Tafessu, H.M.; Hefner, K.; Hamilton, A.; Scheele, C.; Ho, R.; Dresser, L.; Jelstrom, E.; Fishman, M.; Ghitza, U.E.; Rotrosen, J.; Nunes, E.V.; Bisaga, A.

Contemp Clin Trials






Clinical Trials Network; Extended-release injectable naltrexone; Hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial; opioid use disorder; Rapid induction procedure; Stepped wedge design

BACKGROUND: Extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX) is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD), but initiation remains a barrier to implementation. Standard practice requires a 10- to 15-day inpatient admission prior to XR-NTX initiation and involves a methadone or buprenorphine taper followed by a 7- to 10-day washout, as recommended in the Prescribing Information for XR-NTX. A 5- to 7-day rapid induction approach was developed that utilizes low-dose oral naltrexone and non-opioid medications.METHODS: The CTN-0097 Surmounting Withdrawal to Initiate Fast Treatment with Naltrexone (SWIFT) study was a hybrid type I effectiveness-implementation trial that compared the effectiveness of the standard procedure (SP) to the rapid procedure (RP) for XR-NTX initiation across six community inpatient addiction treatment units, and evaluated the implementation process. Sites were randomized to RP every 14 weeks in an optimized stepped wedge design. Participants (target recruitment = 450) received the procedure (SP or RP) that the site was implementing at time of admission. The hypothesis was RP will be non-inferior to SP on proportion of inpatients who receive XR-NTX, with a shorter admission time for RP. Superiority testing of RP was planned if the null hypothesis of inferiority of RP to SP was rejected.DISCUSSION: If RP for XR-NTX initiation is shown to be effective, the shorter inpatient stay could make XR-NTX more feasible and have an important public health impact expanding access to OUD pharmacotherapy. Further, a better understanding of facilitators and barriers to RP implementation can help with future translatability and uptake to other community programs.TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04762537 Registered February 21, 2021.

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