C-Reactive Protein and Homocysteine are Associated With Dietary and Behavioral Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Seddon, J.; Gensler, G.; Klein, M.; Milton, R.
aging; Antioxidants; Biological Markers; C-Reactive Protein; Homocysteine; Macular Degeneration; Risk Factors; Smoking; Vitamins
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether age-related macular degeneration risk factors are associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (HCY), systemic biomarkers for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Subjects with a range of age-related macular maculopathies or no maculopathy at two centers in the United States were evaluated. Risk factors and biomarkers were assessed by questionnaire, direct measurement, or analyses of blood specimens. RESULTS: Higher levels of serum antioxidants vitamin C and lutein/zeaxanthin and higher fish intake were associated with lower serum CRP levels, whereas serum vitamin E, smoking, and increased body mass index were associated with increased CRP. Serum vitamin E, serum alpha-carotene, and dietary intake of antioxidants and vitamin B6 were associated with lower levels of plasma HCY, whereas hypertension was associated with increased HCY. CONCLUSIONS: C-reactive protein and HCY levels are related to traditional dietary and behavioral factors associated with age-related macular degeneration.